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Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology



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Hydrogeology

Kotelnikovsky Spring - Khakussy Spring - Dawsha spring - Snake spring - Goryaschinsk Spring - Arshan - Nilowa Pustyn - Zemchug

Kotelnikovsky Spring


[Map of sampled hot springs]

Kotelnikovsky Spring is located on the north west shore of Lake Baikal. One can get there only by water transport. In the area of Cape Kotelnikovsky one can find a low terrace (0.5 - 1.0 m) composed of gravel and pebble deposits. The outflow of the spring is not visible because the outcrop of the water is funnel - like and surrounded by swamps.


[basin of thermal water Cape Kotelnikovsky]

 


[sampling thermal basins kap kotelnikovsky]

The hot waters penetrate alluvial sediments and flow into the lake. The temperature of thermal water basins near the shore is affected by the temperature of the water of the lake, so temperatures vary from 48 to 64°C. The composition of the hot water is fluorine, carbonate sodium with a total mineralization of 0,4 g/l (TDS). Water of Kotelnikovsky Spring is rich in fluorine (20 - 22 mg/L), hence it is not suitable for drinking. It also contains high amounts of silica (130 mg/L).


[kap kotelnikovsky well]

In 1987 a well with a depth of 44 m was drilled. The outflow of the well was 11 l/s at first, and dropped later to 4 l/s. On our excursion we measured a discharge of about 3.6 l/s. The chemical composition of the water of the well is similar to that of the spring but has minor differences (Irkutsk State Technical University 2004):

fluorine increases to 25 mg/L;
carbonate increases to 50 mg/L;
calcium drops to 1.5 mg/L;

The concentration of silica is nearly the same. Also the mineralisation is lowered to 0,21 g/l (TDS). The pH increases from 8,8 to 9,4 and water temperature reached about 81 °C and is so very much higher than in the spring. The water reserves are sufficient to supply a spa for 200 - 300 persons/day. Thus, in the future the thermal water will not only used by local people but also by tourists for taking a bath or having a shower. The waters can only be used externally to treat e.g. skin diseases and wounds. During the excursion we took two samples (basin and well). A summary of the hydrogeochemical parameters one can be find for the well and the spring. The waters of the well are enriched in nitrogen and in addition there is a slight smell of H2S. Furthermore the waters have a negative EH, so they have reducing effects. In both samples the concentration of iron is very low.

table 1: hydrogeochemical data of the well
-------------------------------------
date 07/28/2004
time 8:10 pm
pH = 9.1
temperature = 75.5 °C
conductivity = 416 µS/cm
O2 not measured, because of high water temperature
EH = -231 mV
Fe (tot) = 0.00 mg/L
NO3- = 11.10 mg/L
PO43- = 1.35 mg/L


table 2: hydrogeochemical data of the spring
-------------------------------------
date 07/28/2004
time 7:30 pm
pH = 9.1
temperature = 45.6 °C
conductivity = 353 µS/cm
O2 = 0.20 mg/L = 3,50 %
EH = -154 mV
Fe (tot) = 0.04 mg/L
NO3- = 1.10 mg/L
PO43- = 0.68 mg/L

Bukharow, A.A. (2001): Baikal in Numbers, short reference book, Siberian Brunch of Russian Academy of Science,
Irkutsk Scientific Center, Baikal Museum, 72 p.

Hölting, B. (1996): Hydrogeologie, 5. Auflage, Enke Verlag, Stuttgart, 439 S.

Irkutsk State Technical University (2004): Some geological materials about Baikal rift-zone

Langguth, H.-R. (1984): List of terms of hydrogeology, geochemistry and geothermals of mineral and thermal waters,
International contributions to hydrogeology, Band 3, Heise Verlag, Hannover, 91 S.

Ullrich, H. (1987): Untersuchungen zur Hydrogeologie von Thermalwässern, unveröffentlichte Studienarbeit,
TU Bergakademie FG

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© B. Merkel, 29.11.2004 http://www.geo.tu-freiberg.de/studenten/Baikal_2004/baikalexcursion/hydrogeology/geothermie/geothermie.HTM
 
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